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Design stages

The main stages of development of design documentation for industrial facilities:

Pre-design stage.

Development of a feasibility study. Selection of basic technological solutions and selection of equipment in accordance with the technical specifications of the Customer.

Project documentation (PD).

The stage of developing constructive, technological, architectural and planning solutions without detailing. The choice of optimal engineering networks, equipment. Determination of the organization of work at the construction site, estimates, etc.

Expertise of design documentation.

Working documentation. Detailed study of all sections.
Designer supervision (mandatory - for hazardous objects).

Composition of the documentation

According to the legislation, project documentation consists of:

  • explanatory note;
  • schemes of the planning organization of the land plot;
  • architecture solutions;
  • volumetric planning, design solutions;
  • information about engineering networks and equipment, a list of development activities;
  • PIC;
  • list of measures for environmental protection;
  • organization of work on demolition, dismantling of structures (if necessary);
  • measures to ensure energy efficiency, fire safety;
  • estimates;
  • other documentation.

Design Methods

The main method for developing projects for buildings in various industries is the widespread use of standard structures. All planning and design decisions are based on unification, that is, standard solutions from modules that form separate cells, which are structurally repeated. Projects are created using graphic, model-graphic, model-model methods, electronic equipment.

Features of the design of industrial buildings

When creating projects for industrial facilities, 2 important factors are taken into account:

Functional requirements.

They determine the future type of indoor production, technological loads, operating mode, etc. Technological solutions determine the conditions for creating engineering networks, planning premises, choosing building materials, and finishing.

Economic expediency
Ensuring the optimal combination of construction costs with the timing, quality of development, and compliance with customer requirements.

Design of hazardous industrial buildings, their classification
The documentation should be developed by designers with a license to work, since in the event of an accident, objects are dangerous to the life, health of citizens, and the environment. The PD of newly erected hazardous structures must undergo an examination, and the existing ones (during reconstruction, liquidation, conservation) are assessed for industrial safety. Construction and installation work at the facilities must be carried out under the supervision of the designer.

 

Such objects are divided into 4 classes, which determine their degree of danger:

Class I - extremely dangerous;
II class - high hazard;
III class - medium hazard;
IV class - low hazard.

Basic design solutions

Industrial design is distinguished by the need to develop a technological section of the project. This requires the preparation of a scheme of technological processes, selection of equipment, calculation of current loads, determination of energy carriers, a logistic scheme of production, a raw material base. Fire safety standards, transport accessibility are taken into account.

Security, architecture features

The peculiarity of the creation of industrial facilities is their difference from other types of buildings due to the fact that they experience heavy loads. They are regulated by SNiPs, Codes of Rules, which determine the degree of fire resistance of buildings, withstand chemical and thermal loads, and moisture resistance. The main task is to provide a safe, comfortable environment for employees, the practicality of an enterprise with convenient approaches to it, logistics, storage conditions, and a good microclimate. The architecture in this case is less important, it is usually typical.

Unification

The design of industrial buildings and structures for the most part is carried out according to modern standard projects, which differ in that they are unified. That is, they are ready for construction by using more versatile, economical elements of structures, selected according to certain criteria. Unification consists in the selection of universal design solutions that have shown a great economic effect in practice.